The most important characteristics of information are accuracy, reliability, completeness, relevance, efficiency.
The accuracy of information is determined by the permissible level of its distortion in relation to the task. The reliability of information is determined by its property to reflect the real objects with the necessary accuracy. The efficiency of information characterizes its relevance in a changing situation.
A mandatory requirement for information is the presence of its carrier, source and receiver, as well as the established communication channel between them.
Of particular importance is the ability to transform information into new knowledge (the process discussed in the previous section), which can be used to make management decisions and enhance the knowledge of management personnel.
Information is one of the types of resources used by a person in the workplace:
Information resource – an organized set of documented information, information, data and knowledge, which is designed to meet the information needs of the consumer
Unlike other (material) resources, the information resource is practically inexhaustible. With the development of society, its volume is only growing.
Information can be internal or external to a particular object, input or output: internal information circulates only within the organization or institution; external coming from other objects. The division of information into input and output allows you to determine the throughput of the system that processes the information.
According to the degree of stability information can be divided into constant, conditionally constant and variable.
Examples of constant information can be quantities such as the number p, the international system of si units, and the like.
Conditionally constant is information that remains unchanged for a certain, relatively long period of time (train schedule, range of products that the company produces).
Variable information contains data for a relatively short period of time, which is constantly updated (weather forecast, exchange rates).
The operations that are performed on the information can be grouped into five groups: collection, transfer, storage, conversion and consumption. Storage of information provides for the presence of media. Transmission of information is carried out in the presence of the transmitter, receiver and communication channel. The process of storing information can also be considered as a transfer in time. The exchange of information between two or more entities is a communication.
Sources of information can be oral reports, printed and electronic documents, other media, media reports
Information can be considered in the following aspects:
o in terms of efficiency and suitability of use;
o its content, the definition of links between the individual components;
o to establish the parameters of information flow, presentation of information, media, ways of organizing and encoding.
The latter approach is associated with the automation of information processing,
It requires its structuring and formalization of the description.
For modes of access, information is divided into levels:
- top secret (top secret)
- confidential (confidential);
- secret (secret);
- open (unclassified).
Public information is available to a wide range of users, the secret contains information that constitute state and other secrets provided by law, the disclosure of which may harm the person, state, society. Confidential information includes information that is in the possession, use or possession of legal entities and individuals and is distributed with their consent. Top secret information is available to a clearly limited group of individuals with the appropriate authority.
One of the most common types of information is economic information, which characterizes the processes of production, distribution, exchange and consumption of goods and services.
Economic information is the most important component in the organization of enterprise management, as it contains information about the composition of labor, material and financial resources both at the moment and for a certain period. It can be used in the process of planning, accounting, control, analysis at all levels of management of production,economic and financial activities of the object.
Commercial information as a subspecies of economic information is the subject of purchase and sale for profit.
We can distinguish the following types of economic information: forecast, planning and contract, accounting, regulatory, reference.
An example of economic information can be a business certificate of the company, which is reflected:
- the name of the company;
- availability and details of state registration;
- history of re-registration;
- legal and actual addresses;
- telephone and Fax numbers;
- legal form and form of ownership;
- authorized capital;
- founders and their shares in the authorized Fund;
- official details of the administration;
- Bank details;
- main activities;
- property owned and leased;
- parent, subsidiaries, branches, participation in the establishment of other companies;
- financial performance for the last reporting and prior periods;
- tax and credit discipline;
- participation in arbitration as a Respondent;
- participation of managers and founders of the enterprise in the management and establishment of other enterprises, the financial condition and reputation of these enterprises.