What is an information system in modern society

Information system – a set of information subsystems that characterize the management of the object as a whole

IP is a structural unit of the highest level and covers all information of the object (shops, enterprises, institutions, organizations, industries):

The relationship between the elements of the logical structure of information

The relationship between the elements of the logical structure of information

modern society

From the point of view of presentation of information on certain media (physical structuring), the relevant units are determined depending on the media and the method of its fixation. This is due to the placement of data arrays in the PC memory. As a rule, the following units of the physical data structure (from low to high) are distinguished: symbol, field, data aggregate, record, file, database.

The concept of the symbol is given above.

A field is a set of characters that creates a minimal semantic element of an array.

A data aggregate is a named collection of two or more lower-level elements that has a separate content . Both elements and other data aggregates can belong to a data aggregate. An example of a data aggregate might be groups of items that form an “Address” or “Date of birth.”

Record-a named set of fields United by a meaningful principle.

Data aggregations and records are implemented in practice by organizing lists, queues, stacks, tables.

File – a named set of records about objects of the same type. As a rule, the records included in the file have the same structure. An example of a file would be a collection of color records of the pixels that make up an image.

A database is a named collection of interrelated data that reflects the state of objects and their relationship in a given subject area. For example, the database “Student” contains information about the age, field, home address,academic performance and other data about the student.

The organization of data in the database is characterized by a certain structure, that is, the form of th way of ordering them. By the nature of the relationship of elements, all data structures can be divided into linear and nonlinear.

Linear structures are sequential structures in which elements are arranged in the order that is required during their processing, for example, a list whose elements are records (a lowercase structure).

Nonlinear data structures include complex lists, trees, networks, tabular and hybrid structures:

  • сomplex lists contain smaller nested items (sublists) ;
  • tree structures – elements are placed at different levels and connected using addresses;
  • network structure represent the expansion of the wood due to new addresses when;
  • tabular data structures are designed to store information about the key features of a given information population;
  • hybrid data structures contain fragments of different structures.
  • linked data model is a fixed system of concepts and rules for representing a data structure.

There are several data models that form the basis of information systems. Three are most often used: hierarchical, network (grid) and relational. Recently, a fourth type has emerged: object-oriented data models that use a combination of traditional and object models.

The network database model uses data representation in the form of an arbitrary graph. In hierarchical – the data is presented in the form of a hierarchical (tree) structure.

The most common database models are relational. They present data in tables. This representation of data, which consists of columns arranged in a particular order from left to right, is called a relationship. Therefore, these tables are called relational (from English. relation – relation).

When designing information systems, it is necessary to take into account the following properties of economic information:

  • input information is mainly recorded in primary documents, which are not always suitable for automatic
  • input into computer memory;
  • the same input data is used repeatedly to obtain indicators in different economic sections for all services and economic activities;
  • most of the economic information is subject to periodic, regular updating;
  • source information is often used as input for further calculations;
  • economic information is characterized by the duration of preservation.
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