Structuring of information is connected with the necessity of its storage, processing or transfer. The structure of economic information determines its structure, the allocation of certain elements. These elements are called information units. They can be simple or complex. Simple elements do not lend themselves to further division. Of these formed a complex, shaped by different levels of the structural building information.
From the point of view of logic of management and placement of data on carriers distinguish logical and physical structure of data.
Logical structuring of information distinguishes elements depending on their functional purpose and features. These are such as: character, props, indicator, information, message, information collection, information flow, information system, information system.
A symbol is the simplest data element, a signal of information (letter, digit, sign), which does not make sense separately.
Props – information unit of the lowest level, consisting of numbers, letters, symbols and makes sense
Props reflect the individual properties of objects – quantitative or qualitative. Therefore, the details are of two types: information-signs and requisites-bases (props value). Props-sign (area, material, specialty) describes the qualitative properties of the object or the circumstances in which there was a particular process. Props-basis (amount, date, price) reveals the absolute or relative quantitative value of props-signs.
Details can be of different types: numeric, text, logical, date, and the like.
In the case of machine representation of information synonyms of the concept of “props” can be “field”, “element”, “attribute”. In special literature use other synonyms of a requisite – “term”, “sign”, etc.
Distinguish between the form and value of the details. The form of the requisite includes the name and structure (format).
The name is used to refer to the details. For Example: “Salary”, “Position”.
The structure of the props is a way of representing its values. It includes length and style. Length is the number of characters that make up the value of the props. For example, “worker ID” can contain three positions, “plant Code” – 10 positions; “Identification code of a natural person” contains 10 positions.
The values of the details are sequences of characters (letters, numbers, various signs and special symbols). In the processing over the details-reason perform arithmetic operations, and using props-signs search, sorting, sampling, comparing (logical operations). Homogeneous requisites-signs are United in the nomenclature (for example, the nomenclature of goods).
From details the indicator characterizing a certain object from the quantitative and qualitative parties is formed. It is the smallest information unit from which the independent document is formed. The essence of economic information is revealed through the economic indicator. For example, the indicator “sales Of Acer laptops is 33 thousand units” is a carrier of quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the corresponding value. Indicators are the basic units of information through which databases are formed. To ensure the unambiguity of the concept of indicators used by various organizations, there is a national classification of technical,economic and social indicators (CCTSP).
A set of indicators sufficient to characterize a particular process (phenomenon, fact), forms a message. For example: the input data comes to the information system in the form of information messages.
Uniform message, United by a certain feature, make up the data array. An example of an array can be a set of data on cash flows in the enterprise.
The array is the main structural unit in the automated processing of information, in particular when writing data to the memory of the machine.